Tuesday, 19 December 2017


Tuesday, 21 November 2017


1. Use TO in these cases:
Motive/Reason (with verb)        
·         I went to the store to buy milk.
What time it is    
·         It was a quarter to six when I left.
·         I shall go to London next month.
·         It’s about ten kilometers from my house to my school.
·         prefer this dress to the one you were wearing yesterday.
·         He gave the pen to his friend.

2. Use FOR in these cases:
Motive/Reason (with noun)       
·         I went to the store for milk.
Period of time   
·         The couple took the house for 2 years.
·         A win is always good for morale.
Function – with verb (-ing form)               
·         She had a special talent for learning languages.
Agree with          
·         Are you for or against his idea?
Doing something to help someone          
·         Could you carry my case for me?

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Thursday, 9 November 2017


Sunday, 5 November 2017


I.                   Common words for money / finance:
abbreviation of Automated Teller Machine: a machine, usually in a wall outside a bank, from which you can take money out of your bank account using a special card.
bank balance:
the amount of money in a bank account.
I'd like to check my bank balance, please.
bank charges:
sums of money paid by a customer for a bank's services.
bank statement:
a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account
when a check cannot be paid or accepted by a bank because of a lack of money in the account:
I had to pay a penalty fee when my check bounced.
(noun) money in the form of notes and coins, rather than checks or credit cards:
Do you have any cash on you?
cash a check/cheque:
(verb) to exchange a check for cash:
Would you cash a check for me?
checkbook (US) / chequebook (UK):
a book of checks / cheques with your name printed on them which is given to you by your bank to make payments with.
check (US) / cheque (UK):
a printed form, used instead of money, to make payments from your bank account:
I wrote him a check for $100.
1. money in your bank account.
I was relieved to see from my statement that my account was in credit
2. a method of paying for goods or services at a later time, usually paying interest as well as the original money.
They decided to buy the car on credit.
credit card:
a small plastic card which can be used as a method of payment, the money being taken from you at a later time.
checking account (US) / current account (UK):
a bank account that you can take money from at any time and which usually earns little or no interest.
(a record of) money taken out of a bank account.
The account was in debit at the end of the month (= more money had been spent than was in the account at that time).
money, which is owed to someone else, or the state of owing something:
He managed to pay off his debts in two years.
The firm ran up huge debts.
deposit (US) / pay in (UK):
to put money into a bank account.
If you go to the bank, will you deposit these checks for me?
direct debit:
an arrangement for making payments, usually to an organization, in which your bank moves money from your account into the organization's account at regular times:
I pay my electricity bill by direct debit.
when you spend or use money.
Buying a bigger car has proved to be well worth the expense.
We've just had a new garage built at great expense.
an agreement in which you pay a company money and they pay your costs if you have an accident, injury, etc:
life/health/car/travel insurance
1. money which is charged by a bank or other financial organization for borrowing money.
I got a loan with an interest rate of 10%.
2. money that you earn from keeping your money in an account in a bank or other financial organization.
You should put the money in a savings account where it will earn interest.
a sum of money which is borrowed, often from a bank, and has to be paid back, usually together with an additional amount of money that you have to pay as a charge for borrowing.
She's trying to get a $100 000 loan to start her own business.
Non Sufficient Fund
The act of overdrawing a bank account.
a person who money is paid to or should be paid to.
savings account (US) / deposit account (UK):
a bank account in which you usually leave money for a long time and which pays you interest.
standing account (UK):
an instruction to a bank to pay a particular amount of money at regular times from a person's bank account to another bank account (compare direct debit)
(an amount of) money paid to the government, which is based on your income or of the cost of goods or services you have bought:
They're putting up the tax on cigarettes.
traveler's check:
a piece of paper that you buy from a bank or a travel company and that you can use as money or exchange for the local money of the country you visit
to take money out of a bank account.

II.                Banking idiomatic expressions:
Can I bank on your support?
A fool and his money are soon parted.
A company or an activity which is a licence to print money.
The company has been coining it/money since the new manager took over.
Since he's in the money, he's extremely generous to his friends.
Ice cream sellers are minting money thanks to the heat.
Most people think being a professional footballer is money for jam.
That costs an arm and a leg.
I got it for a song.
Time is money.

More money idioms with examples

III.              Rich and poor:
Describing a rich or a poor person:
stinking rich, flush, well-heeled, loaded, moneyed, well-to-do, filthy rich, rolling in it, wealthy, prosperous, affluent, well off, ...
dirt poor, hard up, needy, skint, broke, penniless, moneyless, poverty-stricken, empty-handed, deprived, unfortunate, underprivileged, meager, reduced, pitiable, humble, lowly, modest, destitute...

Thursday, 2 November 2017


1)   Look, seem and appear

Look, seem and appear are all copular verbs and can be used in a similar way to indicate the impression you get from something or somebody. Copula verbs join adjectives (or noun compounds) to subjects:

She looks unhappy (here look is more oftenly used with temporary status, e.g. mood)
He seems nice (here seem is more commonly used with permanent condition, e.g. personality)
They appear (to be) contented.

Note that adjectives, not adverbs, are used after copular verbs. We do not say:

She looked angrily.
He seems cleverly.

We have to say:

She looked angry.
He seems clever.

Of course, when look is not used as a copular verb, but as a transitive verb with an object, an adverb will describe how someone looks:

She looked angrily at the intruder.

2)   Look / seem - as if / like

After look and seem, but not normally after appear, we can use an as if / like construction:

It looks as if it's going to rain again.
It looks like we're going home without a suntan.
It seems as if they're no longer in love.
It seems like she'll never agree to a divorce.

3)   Seem / appear to + infinitive

After seem and appear we often use a to + infinitive construction (or a perfect infinitive construction for past events). We cannot use look in this way. Compare the following:

They appear to have run away from home. They cannot be traced.
I seem to have lost my way. Can you help me?
It seems to be some kind of jellyfish. Do not go near it.
They appear not to be at home. Nobody's answering.
They do not appear to be at home. No one's answering.

We can also use a that-clause after It seems?... and It appears..., but not after look. It looks... has to be followed by an as if / like clause:

It seems that I may have made a mistake in believing you did this.
It appears that you may be quite innocent of any crime.
It looks as if / like you won't go to prison after all.

4)   Appear / seem - differences in meaning

You can use seem to talk about more objective facts or impressions and about more subjective and emotional impressions. We do not usually use appear to refer to emotions and subjective impressions. Compare the following:

·   impressions / emotions:

It seems a shame that we can't take Kevin on holiday with us.
It doesn't seem like a good idea to leave him here by himself.
It seems ridiculous that he has to stay here to look after the cat.

·   more objective facts and impressions:

They have the same surname, but they don't appear / seem to be related.
She's not getting any better. It seems / appears that she's not been taking the medication.

5)   Non-copular use of appear and look

Note that seem is used only as a copular verb, but both appear and look have other meanings and uses:

·   appear = (begin to) be seen:

She has appeared in five Broadway musicals since 2000.
Cracks have suddenly appeared in the walls in our lounge.
Digital radios for less than £50 began to appear in the shops before the end of last year.

·   look = direct your eyes / search:

I've looked everywhere for my passport, but I can't find it.
I've looked through all the drawers and through all my files.
He didn't see me because he was looking the other way.

Note that look is used in a wide range of phrasal verbs:

Could you look after the children this afternoon while I go shopping?
Could you look at my essay before I hand it in?
I'm looking for size 36 in light blue. Do you have it?
It's been a hard year. I'm looking forward to a holiday now.
I've written a letter of complaint and they've promised to look into the matter.
Look out for me at the concert. I'll probably be there by ten o' clock.
Don't you want to look round the school before enrolling your children?
He's a wonderful role model for other players to look up to.
If you don't know the meaning of these phrasal verbs, look them up in a dictionary.

Friday, 27 October 2017



It can be hard to decide when to use 'make' or 'do' in English. Here's some help.

1: We use
 'make' when we create or construct something. For example:
She made a cake.
I've made us some coffee.
Did you really make those trousers?

2: We use 'do' for general activities. In this case, 'do' is often used with 'something', 'nothing', 'anything' or 'everything':

What did you do at the weekend?
I didn't do anything yesterday.
She's fed up with doing everything herself. She needs some help.
Are you doing anything interesting during the holidays?

NOTE: 'What do you do?' means 'what's your job?'

3: There are many, many fixed expressions with 
'make' and 'do'. Unfortunately, they don't really follow any useful rules, so you have to learn them. Sorry!

Here's a list:

30 mph (miles per hour)
Many people do more than 30 mph through this town. It's very dangerous.
She did very badly on the exam, so she'll have to retake it.
your best
Don't worry about getting everything correct. Just do your best.
It's been a pleasure doing business with you.
I have to go home and do some chores this afternoon.
a course
John has decided to do a course in computing this autumn.
a crossword
She sat on the sofa, doing a crossword and drinking tea.
The storm has done a lot of damage to the house.
the dishes / the washing up
I really hate doing the dishes. I'm hoping to buy a dishwasher this year.
a drawing
The little boy spent hours doing a drawing.
your duty
He has to do his duty and look after his elderly parents.
an exam
I have to do three exams and write a huge essay this term.
Julie likes doing exercise, especially running.
an exercise
The teacher asked us to do a lot of grammar exercises over the holidays
someone a favour
My friend did me a huge favour and lent me some money.
the gardening
David often spends Sunday afternoons doing gardening.
She helps homeless people and tries to do good.
you good
You should eat your vegetables. They'll do you good!
your hair
Allie spends ages doing her hair in the morning.
I spilt coffee on my suit and tried to clean it, but I did more harm than good. It looks even worse now!
Have you finished doing your homework?
Let's do the housework quickly this morning, then we can go out for lunch.
the ironing
My mother listens to the radio while she does the ironing.
a job
I think the students did a great job with this essay. It's excellent.
the laundry / the washing
He did the laundry, cleaned the house, and made dinner.
your nails
Jenny likes to do her nails each week.
a painting
There was an old man sitting on the bank of the river, doing a painting.
Does everybody hate doing paperwork?
I'm doing some research for my thesis at the moment.
the shopping
I'll do the shopping tomorrow morning. We need milk, bread, pasta and bananas.
time (= be in prison)
He broke into a bank, was caught by the police, and now he's doing time.
My sister is doing well in her new job.
Unfortunately, Lucy does a lot of work at the weekends.
your worst
I've bought all new winter clothes: boots, a coat and a very warm hat. Weather, do your worst!

I'm so sorry that I upset you. How can I make amends?
an appointment
She had toothache, so she made an appointment with the dentist for the following day.
Okay, so we're going to go on holiday in September. Let's make some arrangements. I'll find a hotel, and you can look at flights.
an attempt
I know we might not catch the plane, but let's at least make an attempt to be on time.
The children's favourite game is to make believe that they are kings and queens from long ago.
I think the café opens at six, but let's make certain. I don't want to be standing in the street waiting!
a change
I've made some changes to the document.
a choice
Which job are you going to take? You need to make a choice.
a comment
My mother made a comment about my shoes.
a complaint
The food took so long to arrive that Julie made a complaint to the manager.
a confession
I'd like to make a confession. I was the one who ate the last of the chocolate.
a date
I'd love to see you soon. How about if we make a date for next week?
a decision
I've made my decision. I'm going to go back to university.
a difference
Going to the gym has really made a difference to how I feel.
a discovery
When John was last in London he made a discovery - a beautiful little café in a quiet street.
an effort
You're not trying hard enough! Make an effort!
an error
He made several errors on the report, and the boss told him to rewrite it.
your escape
The bank robbers took £10,000 from the safe and then made their escape.
an exception
Usually the children aren't allowed to watch TV but I made an exception today since the weather was so horrible.
an excuse
Why was Lisa late? Did she make an excuse?
a face
The child took a bite of the broccoli and made a face.
a fire
We put up our tent, made a fire, and had a hot drink.
a fool of yourself
You shouldn't sing in front of everyone! You'll make a fool of yourself.
a fortune
Lucy made a fortune when she sold her company. Now she doesn't have to work.
She loved university and made lots of friends.
fun of
The children love to make fun of the teacher, but only when she's not looking.
a fuss
It's okay! I'm fine, it's just a cough. Don't make a fuss!
an impression
Jenny certainly made an impression last night! All my friends are asking about her.
a joke
The interview was very tense at the beginning, but then John made a joke, and after that it was much more relaxed.
a journey
Because of the snow, try not to make any journeys which are not absolutely essential.
a list
First, I must make a list of all the things I need to do.
a loss
Their business made a loss the first year, but did much better after that.
The hero and the heroine made love in the film.
a mess
What a mess you've made! Can't you tidy up a bit?
a mistake
She made so many mistakes in her essay that the teacher couldn't understand it.
John made a lot of money in his twenties and was able to retire at the age of 35.
a move
Look how late it is! Let's make a move.
a noise
Please try not to make a noise when you come home, because I'll be asleep.
an observation
Could I make an observation? I don't think some of our customers like the new adverts.
an offer
She made an offer on a house. She's nervous because she'll find out today if it has been accepted, and she really wants to buy that house.
a payment
Hello? I'd like to make a credit card payment, please.
a phone call
I'm going to go outside and make a phone call. It's too noisy in here.
David is making plans to move to Paris.
a point
The professor used lots of examples to make his point.
a prediction
The journalist made a prediction about the economy, but in the end it wasn't correct.
a profit
His business made a profit from the beginning.
Finally, after being stuck in a traffic jam for an hour, we're making some progress! We'll arrive by 8pm.
a promise
I must study hard today. I made a promise to my mum that I wouldn't fail any more exams.
a remark
John was upset because the boss made a negative remark about his work.
a reservation
Could you call the restaurant and make a reservation for tonight?
a scene
Susie made a scene in the café when her order was wrong. She shouted at all the staff and demanded to speak to the manager.
a sound
Don't make a sound! We need to be completely quiet.
a speech
The bride's father often makes a speech at her wedding.
a suggestion
Could I make a suggestion? How about going out for dinner?
I don't think I left the gate open, but I'm just going to go and make sure.
the bed
Could you please make the bed before you leave the house? Otherwise it looks so messy with the duvet and the pillows everywhere.
time (=find time to do something)
Everybody's busy, but you need to make time to study. Otherwise you won't be able to get a better job.
That employee is trying to make trouble. He is always telling the boss bad things about his colleagues.
a visit
I'll call you this afternoon. I need to make a visit to my granny this morning.
your mind up
Do you want chocolate or strawberry ice cream? Make your mind up quickly!
your way
After the film, John made his way to a café, where he had two cups of coffee and some cake.