Sunday, 27 May 2018
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CREATED BY VALANGLIA
VIDEO SOURCE: www.youtube.com/ChrisOro
Sunday, 11 March 2018
Difference between for and during in English
The difference between for and during is pretty confusing for many learners of English. However, despite semantic similarity, they are used in a different way. The problem seems to be that in other languages, like in Spanish, these two words (for and during) are translated as a same word. In the case of Spanish for and during are translated as durante, which unfortunately for learners is pretty similar to during.
The use of for in English
The word for is a preposition which is usually followed by “a/an” or a number, plus a unit of time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc.). This preposition is used to express the duration of something:
I have lived in Granada for 10 years.
We have known each other for a couple of months.
The film lasted for 2 hours.
If we pay close attention, the preposition for answers always the question “How long…?”:
How long have you lived in Granada? (For) 10 years.
How long have you known each other? (For) a couple of months.
How long did the film last for? It lasted for 2 hours.
In this way, it is relatively easy to identify when to use for.
The use of during in English
During is another English preposition which tells us when something happens in time. Besides, it is usually followed by a noun which is not necessarily a time unit.
Let’s see some examples:
We couldn’t get any cigarettes during the war.
He died during the night.
All the hotels are full during the summer season.
In the same way as for, during also answers a question, but not “How long…?”, but rather “When…?”:
When couldn’t you get any cigarettes? During the war.
When did he die? During the night.
When are all the hotels full? During the summer season.
In conclusion, according to the previous examples, the difference between for and during is that for tells us how long an action is, while during tells us when something happened. For this reason, if you ever need to know which one to use, you can ask yourself: Do I need to answer “How long…?” or “When…?”. It’s that simple!
Saturday, 24 February 2018
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Thursday, 25 January 2018
Five Things You Need to Know about Writing Articles
In Cambridge First or Cambridge Advanced, you might be asked to write an article. But do you know what makes an article different from other types of writing?
1. The reader is identified
An article is like a direct conversation with the reader. The exam question might tell you who your readers are. For example, the students at a school, or the people living in a town or people who are interested in sports. Everything you write must speak to that reader and engage their interest right from the first sentence.
2. It has to get attention
If you're anywhere on the internet these days, you'll be bombarded with articles with headlines that pull the reader in. It's called "click baiting" and all the writer is trying to do is make you open the page to read their article. You need to think like a journalist when you're writing your article.
Look at the heading and the first line of this article. How did I get your attention?*
3. It has to be interesting
For an article to work, it has to be engaging enough to read all the way through. Remember how bored the examiner must be after reading fifty exam papers. Make it easier for them to get a good impression about your writing by entertaining them. Add humour, real life or made up examples, or make up quotes.
4. It has to be easy to read
Use subheadings to break up the text and make clear paragraphs. Write in a semi-informal, conversational style. And make sure there is organisation to your ideas. The planning stage is vital for this. Spend 5-10 minutes brainstorming ideas and choose the best three or four. Think what your subheadings might be and then write a short introduction that lets the reader know what to expect.
Keep in mind that you want the reader to keep reading, so don't tell them exactly what they will read. This is not an essay! In an essay you usually restate the question, explain how you will answer it and maybe say why it's important. In an article, that will kill the reader's interest.
Look back at this paragraph. What sentence style have I used that makes it semi-informal and speak directly to the reader?**
5. Write a good ending
In an essay you sum up the points that have gone before and draw a conclusion from that. But in an article, it's better to give the reader something to think about, perhaps by asking them another question or giving them a call to action. Often, the best endings link back to the starting point in some way.
Here are two endings I could use for this article:
Look at your internet browsing history from the last day. Which articles got your attention? Can you see how they did it?
So, now you know how to write an article, why don't you write one giving advice on something you know about?
Common mistakes students make in articles:
The language is too formal and more suited to essays. Avoid words like: to sum up, some people say, nevertheless, on one hand etc.
They don't use quotes or examples.
They either use not enough, or too many, questions. The questions, called rhetorical questions because they don't require an answer, shouldn't be more than one per paragraph. Good examples are:
Have you ever ……..?
What do you think about ……..?
Are you one of those people who thinks that ……?
What would life be like if ……?
Will the future bring us ….. ?
* A title which makes the subject immediately clear. For some reason, people like reading lists! And a direct, rhetorical question in the first paragraph to make readers want to find out the answer.
** I've used the imperative to give instructions. E.g. Think… Keep in mind… Write… Spend…
THREE USEFUL SAMPLES TO FOLLOW (FROM CORK ENGLISH TEACHER):