-ED PRONUNCIATION (EXTENSION): ENGLISH WITH LUCY

10 COMMON PHRASES AND WHAT YOU CAN USE INSTEAD

WHETHER OR IF? TIPS AND TRICKS OF CONDITIONALS

Grammar.net
[Infographic provided by Grammar.net]

IF OR WHETHER?

If
 and whether: indirect questions
We can use if or whether to report indirect yes-no questions and questions with orIf is more common than whether:
Call the bakeries around town and find out if any of them sell raspberry pies.
I rang Peter from the station and asked if I could drop in to see him before going back or if he’d meet me.

We often prefer whether in more formal contexts:
The teachers will be asked whether they would recommend the book to their classes.
[from a business meeting]
John read a letter that he’d written and the board discussed whether it should be mailed.

We prefer whether with or when there is more than one alternative in the indirect question:
After the election, we asked whether the parties should change their leaders, their policies, or both.

To express an alternative, we can use or not with if and whether.

With whether we can use or not immediately after whether or in end position. 

With if we use or not in end position only:
I called Bill to find out whether or not he really did go to Afghanistan.
I called Bill to find out whether he really did go to Afghanistan or not.
I called Bill to find out if he really did go to Afghanistan or not.

We use whether and not if before a to-infinitive, often when we’re referring to future plans or decisions:
I was wondering whether to go for a swim.
Some financial decisions, such as planning a pension, need to be taken as early as possible. Others, such as whether to move house, can probably only be made much later.

Whether
 not if
We use whether and not if after prepositions:
Later I argued with the doctor about whether I had hit my head, since I couldn’t remember feeling it.
Not: Later I argued with the doctor about if I had hit my head …
The police seemed mainly interested in whether there were any locks on the windows.
Not: The police seemed mainly interested in if there were any locks …

I doubt ifI don’t know whether
We use if or whether to introduce clauses after verbs of doubting:
I don’t know if I can drive. My foot really hurts.
I didn’t prune the rose bush this year so I doubt if we’re going to have many flowers. (‘prune’ means cut back)
We’ll have plenty of photographs to show you but I’m not sure whether we’ll be able to learn very much from them. 

If, whether: typical errors
  • ·         We use whether, not if, before to-infinitives:

I don’t know whether to buy the blue one or the red one.
Not: I don’t know if to buy the blue one …
  • ·         We use whether, not if, directly before or not:

Can you tell me whether or not you’re interested in the job.
Not: Can you tell me if or not you’re interested …
  • ·         We use whether, not if, after prepositions:

[talking about a trip to Australia for a year]
We’re not interested in whether we get great jobs and that kind of thing, we just want to have a good time.
Not: We’re not interested in if we get great jobs and that kind of thing …

ENCONTRADO EN: dictionary.cambridge.org

FOOD IN BRITAIN (SUBTITLES AVAILABLE)

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (FULL EXPLANATION)

The English subjunctive is a special, relatively rare verb form that expresses something desired or imagined.

We use the subjunctive mainly when talking about events that are not certain to happen. For example, we use the subjunctive when talking about events that somebody:
  • wants to happen
  • anticipates will happen
  • imagines happening

Base Subjunctive

Form of base subjunctive
The form of the base subjunctive is extremely simple. For all verbs and all persons, the form is the base of the verb, for example: be, have, do, go, sing, work.

The base subjunctive does not use any other forms (goes, sings, works).

This table shows the base subjunctive in all persons, using the verbs be, work and sing as examples:
base-subjunctive
be
work
sing
I
be
work
sing
you
be
work
sing
he, she, it
be
work
sing
we
be
work
sing
you
be
work
sing
they
be
work
sing

Note that the subjunctive does not change at all according to person (I, you, he etc).

Use of base subjunctive

In certain that clauses
The base subjunctive is typically used in that clauses after two structures:

1. suggest-verb (or noun) + that
  • advise, ask, command, demand, desire, insist, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, suggest
  • command, demand, order, proposal, recommendation, request, suggestion

2. advisable/anxious-adjective + that
  • advisable, best, crucial, desirable, essential, imperative, important, necessary, unthinkable, urgent, vital
  • adamant, anxious, determined, eager, keen
Look at these sentences which include examples of the above:
main clause
suggest-verb
that clause
with subjunctive
He
suggests
that
you
be
present at the meeting.
The board
recommend
that
he
join
the company.
He
requested
that
the car park
not
be
locked at night.

main clause
suggest-noun
that clause
with subjunctive
They made a
suggestion
that
we
be
early.
He made a
proposal
that
the company
buy
more land.
The president has issued an
order
that
the secretary
resign
next month.

main clause
advisable-adjective
that clause
with subjunctive
It is
advisable
that
she
rest
for a week.
It was
essential
that
the army
advance
rapidly.
After the landing, it will be
vital
that
every soldier
not
use
a radio.

main clause
anxious-adjective
that clause
with subjunctive
Tara is
anxious
that
you
return
soon.
They are
keen
that
he
not
be
hurt.
We were
determined
that
it
remain
secret.

Notice above:
  • the position of not when creating negation
  • that the main clause can be in any tense
Look at some more examples, which include that clauses in negative and continuous form:
  • The judges order that he stay the execution.
  • We have made a request that we not be disturbed.
  • It is important that a car be waiting when we arrive.
  • The manager was eager that his visitor see the new building.
  • The board of directors recommended that he not be dismissed.
  • Have you seen my suggestion that work hours be reduced?
The use of the subjunctive as above is more common in American English than in British English, where should structures are often used:
  • It was essential that we should vote the following day.
  • He requested that the car park should not be locked at night.

be
 after if
We sometimes use subjunctive be after if/whether, though this is rather formal, especially in British English:
If that
be
(not)
the case,
I intend to report the matter.
Whether he
be
prepared or not,

If this be error and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved. 
William Shakespeare

Fixed expressions
Note the following fixed expressions with the subjunctive:
  • Bless you!
  • God bless America!
  • God save the Queen.
  • Long live the President!
  • Heaven forbid!
  • Heaven help us!

were
-Subjunctive

Form of were-subjunctive
were-subjunctive
be
I
were
you
were
he, she, it
were
we
were
you
were
they
were

Note that the subjunctive does not change according to person (I, you, he etc).

Use of were-subjunctive
In the following examples, you can see that we sometimes use the were-subjunctive (instead of was) after:
  • if
  • as if
  • wish
  • suppose
Note that in these cases were is always correct, but was is possible in informal language:
Formal with were
Informal with was
I would go if I were younger.
I would go if I was younger.
If he were not so mean, he would buy one.
If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one.
I'd tell her if I were you.
We do not normally say "if I was you" even in colloquial language.
It's not as if I were ugly.
It's not as if I was ugly.
She acts as if she were the Queen.
She acts as if she was the Queen.
wish I weren't so slow!
I wish I wasn't so slow!
I wish the computer were working.
I wish the computer was working.
Suppose she were here. What would you say?
Suppose she was here. What would you say?

If I Were a Rich Man Fiddler on the Roof
If I were a boy 
Beyoncé
If I were a carpenter
And you were a lady,
Would you marry me anyway?
Would you have my baby? 
Tim Hardin

Strange as it may seem, although the words hope and wish seem to be similar, we do not use the subjunctive with hopeCorrect sentences with hope would be, for example:
  • I hope that this computer works.
  • I hope that this computer is working.

ENCONTRADO EN: www.englishclub.com